Wars and Cultures

Ya’qub Tavakkoli

A deliberation on the reflections of wars in literary works
Not a long time after war finished, it was missed especially by those who had seen or experienced it and they found a tremendous nostalgic feeling about war and the fronts and soon it caused the diaries of war period to come into consideration to be published and "The History of Sacred War" gradually appeared from different angles.
Although the researches, documentaries and narrative writings each had an important role in the sacred war literature, the “oral memoirs” found so much more important status.
Thus furthermore the oral memoir that includes the basic aspect of sacred defense literary and historic products now, making it methodical and pathology of this field will clearly be necessary. In following essay, the different kinds of wars and their various effects on history and war literature are scanned.
The mankind and all living creatures' struggle to attain the natural benefits or dominating each other is instinctual or at least a part of their senses among the creatures. Such as the struggles between human beings in order to earn pastures that caused sanguinary fights between them in the past, the same struggles occurred to conquer a city or a country too. The ideological wars based on religious beliefs have occurred in history as well. In human history many sanguinary fights have happened to attain power, that generally haven't had any advantages for the both sides except fulfilling the superiority and earning the spoils for a few ones and super powers, but these excellence seeking battles caused hostilities, attacks and new actions to appear in the society. Social forces' contrast and defenders who were aggressed, was one of these social actions that have differed according to societies' proportion, type and range of people's sensitivity and also rate and time of contrast and resistance in front of aggression. This specialty comes with different and particular patterns in each society. Therefore comprehensively the wars based on the people's manner, almost happen with same purposes of the past and new discoveries and inventions like nuclear bomb, hasn't changed the real nature of wars.
Professor William Arkin, a member of Foreign Political Research Institute of U.S says: "It's not true that the emersion of nuclear weapons has ended the 5000 year old history of wars and has opened a new history origin. Combating to earn power has approached another process but it still has the same nature. It is a fact that dangers enlargement has donated a strategic superiority to who have learned the ways of combating the thoughts of opposite side and how to use these risks and deal with them professionally and it has proscribed what is called nuclear solidity instead of power use, but yet it hasn't disparaged the classic strategic advice. Unlike increasing the power wisely to achieve political aims, now it continues to perform the same role as it has already had".
It's a fact that the human's industrial developments and progress have had a great effect on the damages due to the battles. So was the number of victims in the wars of past ages, about one to ten people in one thousand were killed. This ratio has increased to the detriment of those killed throughout centuries and in World War II one of two soldiers engaged in war, was killed. More over the war was dragged into the cities and residential areas and many civilians were trapped by death. While in human's past histories the two superpowers, Room and Iran Empires determined the victorious or defeated side by facing their corps or by fighting and some particular gatherings on the battle field, the hostilities stopped for a while, or in Iran history period after Islam entrance, following several fights with broad geographical scale, the number of victims of both sides was fewer than two thousand, this fact has changed terribly in modern world.
That is why the recent wars of current centuries have turned into a demonstration of mass killings that is so different from usual battles in the world. In new theories war is considered as an armed struggle between countries for imposing a political idea or particular purposes or to use the equipment they have.
Increasing the amount of combat power, range of human injuries was also more. Quincy White in "Causes of war and peace conditions" says: "since the beginning of seventeenth century European countries have burned in 2300 wars. For example the First World War that lasted 1565 days, left 400 billion $ damages, 9 million slain and 33 million disables and 5 million missing behind, and it's not known yet what these material, let the moral damages, resulted in for human being."
At that time Quincy White didn't know that the modern man would get involved in a bigger war that would leave more than 40 million slain and several million homeless, disabled, refugees and mental ills and as a consequence of this war the human society will observe the anxiety civilization and panic period.
Wars, based on the type and quality of beginning and geographic domain, are divided into two major types called: Foreign wars and Domestic wars.
A) Foreign wars
Foreign war is a war that occurs between two or several countries or tribes that there hasn't ever been a political or geographical unity between them. These wars are also divided into two main groups: The Aggression wars and Defensive wars.
One of the important consequences of Aggression wars leading to failure is the configuration of politic revolutions inside the country. There are different ideas about the revolution after the government failures in foreign war that often has emphasized on similar events frequency in the society. According to Chalmers Johnson, Gore, and Scotch and …. One of the effective factors in a system crash is its military's defeat in war. As Tsarist regime exposed a revolution after Russian military was defeated by Japan and at last was overthrown and Ottoman Empire broke up after participating in World War I, was defeated and its different blocks each got independent. Also following China's monarchy's breaking up after the defeat of Japan, the victorious forces in war established Chiang Kai-shek’s government in Taiwan and Mao’s in China.
Aggression wars also cause anti war literature and art to form. As it was mentioned, one of the results of Aggression wars is formation of the Domestic defiance since those who expose war and its risks generally are not visitors will of war, but the ordinary people who have been obliged to involve in politicians and military's will slaughter, have to kill and rob those unfamiliar ones whom do not feel any hostility with. A crime committed to occupy the other territories and more space to breath (like Germans), the proof of superiority of the politicians' will, earning the spoils and better opportunities for their fellows' life, of course it costs to the death of the people attacked. It's usual that among superiority and war seeking literature and art considering powerful ruler, many awake and conscious, disgusting invasion ones remind these forces bitterly.
The antiwar literature and art in aggressive societies cause the war commanders not to change into popular myths. Antiwar literature in Germany and Europe didn't respect Hitler as an honorable character. Although Napoleon was praised in France and whole Europe by some, for his military genius and capacity, there are also many who convict him for his Aggression wars, as in Iran many think Nader Shah deserves to be reproved due to his attack to India.
However the Defensive wars are sacred in all divine and materialist schools and human cultures. And the defender and devoted characters have had a crucial position in countries' historic, cultural and art works and nobody else has had such a great impression on formation of lasting saga and mythical characters formation like them. Rostam-e -Dastan, Arash-e - Kamangir, Ario Barzan, Jalal-ul-Din Kharazmshah, Sheikh Hassan Joori, Imam Quli Khan, Abbas Mirza, Raeis Ali Delvari, Mostafa Chamran, Aliakbar Shiroudy, Sayyad Shirazi, Hossein Fahmideh and … are some of defender and devoted characters in Iranian nation's history who have become persistent besides many other martyrdom and sacrificing myths.
Defensive wars are divided into two major groups “Victorious” and “Defeated” based on their effects.
When Defensive wars occur, the background for resistance culture and liberal combat prepare to appear. If the Defensive resistance culture history of the countries is reviewed, some serious similarities will be observed in them such as; the clarification of culture, strategy, resistance and defense tactic and translation and transfer of this culture and strategy to the countries in the same situation. For instance the Russians' combat pattern in Stalingrad was used by Vietnamese in battle with French that is reflected in artistic and written works as well. Algeria also used the battle rules and methods which Vietnamese used in the battle with the French. The same rules were used in Iran after America's intervention in country too. Translation and using intellectual and instructional works by of General Giap, the Veit Congs’ commander; and Ho Chi Minh, Vietnamese president; have been considered in Iran among reformist and Islamist groups, before and after Islamic Revolution victory. May be the most interesting example of such cases, is translating Minh's intellectual instruction about guerilla war principles in Payam-e Enqelab (Revolution courier) magazine published by Sepah-E- Pasdaran (Revolutionary Guards Corps) during sacred defense. Frantz Fanon's; a black French revolutionist who has served Algerian troops as well; works were used in Iran too. In addition to these examples the art works such as paintings and sculptures have been used to reflect some one's self sacrifice in Russia, Korea and other countries that have resisted in front of aggression. Victorious resistance has always been inspirational for the current resistance. Such as Vietnamese resistance in front of America that was inspirational for the people of many countries such as Iran. Lebanon's resistance is inspirational and culture maker for Defensive war with the occupants now. One of the important consequences of Victorious Defensive wars is an increase in deterrence capability in foreign disputes and creating social power because of the social correspondence. The countries that have succeeded in Defensive war are attacked again by the same foreign enemy, so later than the periods they were defeated. As First Shah Abbas victory in combat with Portuguese, propelled them back from Persian Gulf forever and the victory in combat with Ottomans and Uzbeks secured the western and eastern borders of the country for years. Also Nader Quli Mirza's victory in battle with foreign aggressors such as Ottomans powerful government made Russians who had attacked some regions of Persia to retreat and apologize. Victory in Defensive wars, cause organizational structures resistance to form in country. While this structure exists, the deterrence period will continue, as the self-devoted public organization of revolution supporters was formed with the culture of gallantry and martyrdom during sacred defense and noticeably changed the pattern and strategy of fighting and also the public resistance.
One of the impacts of victorious Defensive wars is preparing the ground work to create a lot of art works about this field. The excitement through the victories in battle and the defender forces resistance provokes most people's passion to praise the resistance and victory in a way and save the memories of those days. Many of these works are led by people's passion and sometimes by government and important characters' support.
Of course the resistance of a nation or defenders may fail because of the lack of warriors and facilities, and defenders in spite of serious resistance in front of aggression are killed. However in such battles the defeat is accepted and it provides the fields for building saga; that is particularly the origin of resistance and defending spirit, in society. Iranians' defeat in Chaldoran battle during Shah Ismail I in Safavids era, against aggressive Ottomans, Lotf-Ali Khan resistance, Tangestanis and Ra’is-Ali Delvari's resistance in battle with the British, Mirza Kuchak Khan of Jangal movement failure against the British and Cossacks, and the resistance by people, revolutionary guards and voluntarily mobilized forces in Khorramshahr and Seyyed Hossein Alam-ul-Hoda and his fellows' martyrdom in Howaizeh during Iraqi invasion against Iran, are some examples.
This failed resistance is a kind of epic. The most significant example of failed resistance that caused many kinds of resistance and a special culture to grow is ‘Ashora's epic in which Imam Hussein despite of defeat in military battle and martyrdom, changed the history route.
Sometimes the failure in defend occurs due to hesitation, irresponsibility in doing duties and disobedience in front of the commander and the most important one is because of fear. Such failure leaves negative and bitter effects on a country or nation. As a result of coercive defeat against aggression, the public mood of a nation or country fails and agitation and disorganization will appear at that country that may cause a kind of literary and artistic failure due to frustration or appearance of the Black Literature. It's not surprising that, Ali (PBUH) in the beginning of Siffin war (after Mu’awiyah's troop occupied Euphrates) said: "Water your swords by enemies' blood in order to water yourself. Death exists in defeated and cowards' life and life exists in victorious one’s death" More important is that, as a result of defeat in a battle the effort to disappear failure's impacts starts seriously and causes the crises and often rebellions and domestic sanguinary wars, while fighting and resistance spirit vanishes in a country and the conditions for a new attack get prepared.
The frustration of Imam Ali's (PBUH) troops in Siffin battle that happened due to disobedience of Imam's orders caused the tension in troop and Kharijites emersion, special customs and pugnacity, which finally ended in riots in Islamic Caliphate and Nahrawan battle occurrence. Also following that war not only didn't the pugnacities end, but also it was resulted in terror and Imam Ali's (PBUH) martyrdom. And a lot of problems appeared for Islamic Caliphate. Disobedience and lack of sacrifice sense among Imam Hassan's (PBUH) soldiers in combat with Mu’awiyah and the permutation in Islamic Caliphate, domination of weakness, lassitude, languor and abjection on Muslims were also the consequences of their failure. The conditions got prepared for Umayyad's aggressions' intensification as well. The current religious literature collapsed and Umayyad's anti Islamic literature grew and they assassinated Imam Hassan. The condition was such agitated that there wasn't any other way left to change the situation of Islamic territory except an insurrection and obstinate resistance like ‘Ashora's. Iran's first failure against Tsarist Russia also affected the cultural actions and national literature and somehow created national frustration in all fields. As Mullah Ahmad Naraqi, left the battle field desperately and went to Kashan and wrote "’Avayid-ul-Ayyam" there and his purpose of writing this book was country's salvation of the current situation and changing the illiterate and no commitment kings' domination. He mentioned Velayat-e Faqih theory in this book referring to the religious sources. Iranians' successive failures persuaded Iranian intellectuals to exit from complicated social situations. Individuals like Sayyid Jamal-al-din Asadabadi; and scholars like Mirzay-e Shirazi also proceeded the way to return to Islam and Muslims' unity.
During Iran's failure period in world and comprehensive attacks by the colonists to Iran, we observe that among military, scholars, intellectuals and nomads there wasn't an organized resistance formation. Some Iranians referred to distant and ancient past to prove themselves or regretted the lack of Rostam and mourned for Sohrab and just could observe Iranians' slaughter.
B) Domestic Wars
Domestic wars are those which happen among the people of a geographical domain and of course these people may have a united ideology or contrast ideologically, where as they have an ideological unity the combat will occur for their own benefits and sharing advantages. Such as Jamal war that occurred between Imam Ali's (PBUH) companions and his ex supporters. Sometimes different opinions about an event and idea cause to battle like combat with Kharijites.
The style of Domestic wars is based on their type and the number of forces involved. If the opposition with the central government rebel, a kind of Domestic war starts between government and the groups of people to revolt or reform.
Iranians' Domestic wars with Mongols, Mirza Kuchak Khan's riot against 1919 contract, Domestic war in Cuba led by Fidel Castro against General Batista and the El Salvador's guerillas' battle against central government are examples of this range. Sometimes the Domestic wars happen to separate from the central government and are accompanied with some kinds of separatist literature and interests. Of course this separatism has two different forms; first a territory is occupied by an aggressive government and becomes a part of its territory. Such battles generally occur as rebels. Algeria's guerillas' battle with French government, Indian's combat with English government and Ireland's Republican Army's combat with England, Domestic war in Cuba's first revolution against Spain and the South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerillas and African National Congress (ANC) combats with South Africa's government and the combats of people in Southern Lebanon and Palestinians with Israeli aggressors are examples of this type. These Domestic wars are generally called Resistance and are the nations' wishes creator. But sometimes the wars occur, intended to suppress competitor groups to take more power over. Unlike the battles of Resistance; that seems so sacred, these battles are so bitter and have terrible social consequences.
Of course these battles are sometimes unifying battles; the wars that are done to gather centrifugal different centers under the control of central government. These battles; regardless of the form, save the geographical unity and provide the situation for central government's formation and national identity. In Iran's history one of these battles; which has had a bad publicity, is Shah Ismail I battle to create national unity in country and change it from Feudalism to people- government situation and a unit rule, this is contemporary with unity troubleshooting of small politic sections in Europe to much extent and Ottoman Empire formation as well.           
America's domestic war between north and south, was another unifying war that could organize an integrated central government. From one point of view Vietnam's war was also an attempt to return national unification into a country. Because after Viet Cong guerillas' victory and Northern Vietnam government, the Southern Vietnam came back to the main land again. This event couldn't lead to unity in the battle of two Koreas.
In summary any form of Domestic wars can be sacred and respectable for some nations and hated for some others. Iran's battle in Chaldoran war and Shah Ismail's devotional attempt to earn a piece of country back failed, but in Iran's history nobody reproved Shah Ismail for that, though the battle for the opposite side was admired as an honorable victory.
It should be considered that the public conscience of the nations and history usually make fewer mistakes in distinguishing the power seeking, separatists and domination seekers from the nation and ideology supporters and Praise literature will never shape among other nations, impressed by the Aggression wars' heroes, except between their special supports.
The effect of Sacred Defense on Iran's Historic literature
Without any doubt the two almost contemporary phenomena; Islamic Revolution and Iranians' long lasting defend in two Domestic and Foreign wars provided the situation for a kind of modern literature in Iran history.
One of difficult subjects that exist in history journalism of current Iran after Islamic Revolution is that the discern line between Revolution and war history is not separable from each other. However the Sacred defense theme has been a different event in Iran history and this valuable historic event has appeared in "a Victorious Defensive war format" and as we mentioned Victorious Defensive war causes epic literature to create and resistance literature to broaden as the victory of Islamic Revolution has been effective on creation of such literature. That is why in most current history journalism centers and also most current researchers and writers are orbiting between two histories of Islamic Revolution and Sacred Defense and they consider its cause that between Revolution and Sacred war there is not a remarkable and separable boundary, and in most history journalism centers besides Sacred Defense literature, Revolution literature has always been mentioned too. The Bureau for the Islamic Revolution Literature and Art of Resistance at Hozey-Honari (Arts Center), Islamic Revolution Documents Center, The Revolutionary Guards Center for War Researches and Studies, Foundation for Preservation of Monuments and Values of Sacred Defense with the approaches of Revolution and Sacred Defense, the serious centers are considered to close the literature of Sacred Defense and Islamic Revolution and more important than that are many various writers that haven't been able to convince themselves to rectify their research route, because convincing own selves to analyze these two important domains, existing a lot of connections, is almost impossible. Because the back ground that Revolution literature grew on it, is exactly the same visual and social back ground that the Sacred Defense literature has grown on.
However there are some serious distances between Revolution literature and literature of Sacred Defense, which can separate each of these literatures from the other one, but the mediocrity is in maximum visual, research and writing conjunction and unity.
There is no doubt that Iranian people's Sacred Defense could figure one of the wonderful phenomena of current era and this fact has left a deep impression on historic literature. Historic literature formed after Sacred Defense consists of following terms:
1-Historical Research and Analysis literature
2-Documentary Historical literature 
3-Historical Fiction literature
4-Narrative historical literature

 1- Historical Research and Analysis literature
Historical Research and Analysis is a kind of literature that is seeking for the reason and quality of the events occurred during Sacred Defense and considers the analysis of events' cause and effect and in its discussion structures states the causes of incidents' formation. The base of this literature that is known as a scientific work in universities is presenting a theory and proving it based on visual data.
In Research literature many samples were regarded to research that War Research Center organized its most developed form. In this domain, several research works were published that we can mention "To the Bloody City of Khorramshahr" as an example. Foundation for Preservation of Monuments and Values of Sacred Defense has also had a lot of activities in this field. The other research institutions and individuals have been active in mentioned domain as well. " Sacred Defense geography"," Historic origins of the conflicts between Iran and Iraq"," Politic history of Imposed war" and " Iraq's aggression to Iran and UN making position" are some of these works. Also research encyclopedias are published by Foundation for Preservation of Monuments and Values of Sacred Defense; geography encyclopedia, law encyclopedia (in print) and Martyrs' encyclopedia are some of these sorts.
 2- Documentary historic literature
Besides Research literature, Documentary Historic literature is so noticeable. Documentary Historic literature is in which the major discussions are organized based on the documents and the document comes first in that. Thus the writer is not bounded by theory and idea in this domain, instead is looking for clarifying a new subject through presenting a document or correct, change a traditional thought or emphasize on it. Although on this route we are still beginners, the publication of documents related to Sacred Defense tends to start.
The book "Khorramshahr in Captivity" is one of the works written down based on the documents left in Khorramshahr." Honor Documents" are the exchanged letters between the presidents of the time: "Mr. Hashemi Rafsanjani" and "Saddam Hussein", Iraqi aggressive president, about the peace discussions.
Now the organizations and institutes still have great doubts about it and don't think it's a suitable time to publish the documents and if the documentary books are published in some institutions, it is done with a complete historic and military care.
3- Historical Fiction literature
One other aspect of current historic literature is its Fiction type. This literature that is seriously pioneer has been written in different shapes in Sacred Defense and Martyrdom domain and literature has formed a big sort of Iranian current historic mind about the Sacred Defense history.
Historical Fiction literature is a kind of literature in which the historic mind forms based on fiction and in this literature the writer processes the historic view by means of narration regardless to the frames and the distresses of historic literature about citation, sources, theories; either on clarification or narration range. In such process author's freedom in processing the story and benefiting the words will cause the concepts to transfer faster.
In spite of the great impression of fiction literature, due to story writing and lack of the necessity of citation and reality of events, incidents and characters, it's not possible to have a historic reference, but it deserves to be given credit for conducting the unity and national identity and sacrifice feelings in Sacred Defense period.
  4-Narrative Historical literature
In Narrative Historical literature in Iran nowadays, there is a strong joint between Islamic Revolution and Sacred Defense. After all, several basic forms of narrative history have shaped in Iran. Re knowing narrative history is dependent on its specialty and structure. Narrative history is one of the admitted and general ways of transferring the concepts related to incidents and occurrences and is figured in some common forms that can be summarized in four following terms:
1-Narrative History of Report writing
2-Daily Narrative History
3-Personality Studies in Narrative History
4-Memoir literature

1-Narrative History of Report writing
Among published sources, many are authored in the shape of report writing. In ancient sources and works we can note Tabari History and Yaqubi History; of course the brief texts have been formed after a long time after the incidents occurred and sometimes they are categorized according to the subject, such as Vaqedi's Al Moqazi and Vaqfat-ul-Siffin of Nasr-ibn-Mozahem-e-Kufi or different war reports about military events which are some examples of Narrative History of Report writing. The works and references written about Sacred Defense; like "Sacred Defense History", "Sacred Defense Operations History", “Faw occupation”, “Beit-ul-Moqaddas operation”, “Fath-Ol-Mobin operation”, "The battles of Eastern of Karoon"… are the works specially written about war's events as reports.
2-Daily Narrative History
Another form of Narrative History is history journalism based on daily events. This routine has formed during recent years more and of course its historical example is visible in Etemad-ul-Saltaneh's diary and different itineraries. We can mention "The diaries of Imposed war" as a significant example written by War Research Center about the period of Imposed war that is published in a category of different works with a big variety and volume. These works are considered as the unique kinds of daily Narrative History. The extent of these works may cause their distribution to decrease and reduce the convenience and purchase rate. But it's one of the appropriate sources for research and writing at this field that is the result of a long term historical research about Sacred Defense history.
3-Personality Studies in Narrative History
One other shape of Narrative Historical literature is Personality Study of Sacred Defense. The specialty of these works is concentrating on a specified character's life in writing. This method is well-known to "Translation Writing" and "Trajom-ul-Rejal" and we can search for lots of references written in this format. Assad-ul-Fabeh; a work based on Umayyad point of view and "’A’yan-u-Shi’a"; an expanded history about Shiite’s characters are some regarded examples including such style. In addition single journalism about the characters during Historical texts writing period has always been remarkable.
Different works about Sacred Defense martyrs in Iran have been published with a different structure from, memoir, research and documents. Personality Studies and introducing this war's martyrs' life style is a serious field left from "Iran's people's victorious defense" that has led countless works: such as "encyclopedia of history eternals" special for seven provinces: East and West Azerbaijan, Ardebil, Zanjan, Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan and written by the same writer following works about martyred  commanders of mentioned provinces: "Badr Star"," The set of the works of congress of Kerman, Sistan-Baluchistan, Azerbaijan, Isfahan and Tehran martyrs". Different works of Foundation for Islamic Revolution Martyrs, Foundation for Preservation of Monuments and Islamic Revolution Documents Center, and natural and legal personalities are a lot. However it seems there are many distribution fields that haven't been noticed yet. For instance the seven volume collection about martyred commander of seven provinces published by Foundation of Martyrs hasn't been available yet even for many of mentioned towns' Foundations and nor the martyrs' families, in spite of their perfect accompanies, aren't informed about these works yet. Similarly the other works of dear writers also may still remain in Tehran and their distribution and publication get scares.
4-Memoir literature
One of the other important aspects of Revolution and Sacred Defense in Narrative history field is memoir literature.
Memoir literature is divided into some basic types including: 1-Memoir literature diary; 2-Written memoir literature; 3-Oral memoir literature
1-4- Memoir literature diary
In memoir literature diary, the writer writes about daily events up to date and these daily notes are usually written regardless to future events and interpretation of roles and writer, although considers to record his role in history journalism, he will appear himself in different ways and will claim a lot of realities.
In Islamic Revolution historical literature "The Notes of Amir-Assad-Allah-Alam" is one of the main sources and in the literature contemporary with war and Revolution "Daily Notes of Mr.Hashemi Rafsanjani" are very noticeable. As one of the first published Dairy works about Sacred Defense we can mention "Susangerd Notes" written by Reza Sadeqzadeh and also "Privation of Sun" the notes of Martyr Ahmadreza Ahadi.   
2-4- Written memoir literature
Written memoir literature generally includes the literature that the writer states his role in incidents after the events occur and the change in social and political roles. Sometimes a part of writer's historical memoir and memoir processor are quantified as diary. Diary isn't separate from its contemporary history of that time and writer wants to coordinate himself with the values of his period. "Hopes and Hopelessness" by Karim Sanjabi, "After Failure" by Ahmadali Masud Ansari are some examples of this type.
3-4- Oral memoir literature
Are such memories in which the memoir narrator is able to talk about it but doesn't have ability or possibility to write, so explains the incidents orally and its proof is a tape that the Oral history Institutes or the reporter changes that into written form and prepare it to print. Oral memoir literature is divided into following types:
A) Raw Oral memoir that consists of memories that reporter prints without any editing and it is mixed with a lot of mistakes such as The collection of Harvard university Oral history of Iran and the collection pressed by the same university.
B) Edited Oral history. In edited Oral history the writer edits the Oral memories and simplifies its literature for reading. "The memories of Martyred General Ali Sayyad Shirazi" "The Leaden Roads" or "War Captives Narrated by memories" are some examples of this type.
C) Codified Oral memories are the memories in which the writer codifies the memories in different shapes of memoir narrating, because of narrator's burbles and recovering the memories' structure, often to simplify the reading and drawing attention. In the mean time Colonel Shahbazi's memories, called "Nights without moonlight" is one of the works in Sacred Defense domain.
D) Compound Oral memories. In such memoir the writers and reporters compound the memories of several people based on their own categorization to achieve desired theme. The book "My commander" pressed by Resistance literature and Art Office is a scattered collection of the memories of Sacred Defense commanders. However this work doesn't generally look like the Oral memoir literature it is the first example of compound memoir literature.
"The Battles of the Eastern of Karoon, from the commanders' point of view" published under supervision of War Research Center is another important work that can be settled in Compound Oral memoir literature domain. Another interesting example of these works is "The First Platoon" I which the writer has found the members of a team and has reported them individually. Of course compound Oral literature has been used in the biographies of most martyrs to. In various works like "Martyr Bakery's Biography”,"Encyclopedia of History Eternals" and …. The Compound Oral history is used greatly, but since they are published as biographies, they are less defined as memoir literature.
The journalist follows two styles in categorizing Compound literature and both styles are usable in Iran: 1- The Compound Oral history literature based on memories, that in this style generally the oral memories of people are applied to clarify the incidents and subjects. 2- The Compound Oral memoir literature based on the combination with documents, which in this style the oral memories of different individuals are re identified besides documents, a style that is used in "Encyclopedia of History Eternals" and in fact the conversations are combined with documents. These documents include: official reports of Revolutionary Guards, Martyrs' employment files, wills and handwritings  and other valid statistical information and even finally the report of martyrdom ID card and some pictures refer to that time; a fact that Mr. Asghar Kazemi considered well in his "The First Platoon".

"Victorious Defensive Battle" and Iran's people's Sacred Defense could regard a great deal of Documentary Historic literature and Narrative literature that here the role of Oral memoir literature is much more noticeable and although not all activities at this filed have turned into written works, the Oral memoir literature is turning to a dominant aspect of Sacred Defense literature and it is necessary to codify the history journalism wisely and through pathology of this important historic period and to change the war treasure into an important process in transferring the Islamic and revolutionary values arena.

Translated by: Elham Sabahi

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A memory from Asadollah Tajrishi
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“Internal Reaction” published

Apart from the student activities and massive demonstrations in the years 1352 to 1354 (1973-1975), another part of my activities was the books I was writing myself. Of course, before they turned into books, I used to lend them in the form of nameless pamphlets in university libraries. Many harmful writings or books were taken to the mountains or transferred to other universities, sometimes even abroad.

Loss of Memory in Pahlavi Prisons

In total, [I was in prison] about 6 years in two arrests. For the first time after several years, a soldier arranged my escape. I do not know why! Maybe he was one of the influential elements of Islamic groups. They took me to the hospital for the treatment of my hand, which was broken due to the callousness of an officer.